What are Human Rights

By Publisher
4 Min Read

By Frank Tietie

Human rights are the rights everyone has simply because they are human beings.

*Legal Sources of Human Rights*
Human Rights were first formally recognised under international law and have gained further significance by the enactment of various constitutions of the countries of the world.

_Significant Legal Instruments of Human Rights are as follows_ :

A. *International Bill of Rights-*
1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

2. The International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights, 1966.

3. The International Covenant on Economic Social & Cultural Rights, 1966

– All which have been ratified by Nigeria in 1993

B. *African Charter on Human & Peoples’ Rights, 1981*
Ratified and domesticated in Nigeria, in 1983

C. *The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999* (As Amended)

D. *Other Important Human Rights Instruments*

a. *Rights of Women* – The Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) Ratified by Nigeria in 1985)

b. *Rights of Children* – The Convention on the Rights of the Child (Ratified and Domesticated in 2003)

c. *Anti- Torture* – The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Ratified and domesticated in 2017)

*Categories or Dimensions of Human Rights*

1. *Civil & Political Rights*
a. Right to Life

b. Right to Dignity of the Human Person

c. Right to personal liberty

d. Right to fair hearing

e. Right to private and family life

f. Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion

g. Right to freedom of expression and the press

h. Right to peaceful assembly and association

i. Right to freedom of movement

j. Right to freedom from discrimination

k. Right to acquire and own immovable property

l. Right to Compensation for Compulsory acquisition of property

m. Right to no restriction on and derogation from fundamental human rights

n. Right to Free Legal aid

o. Right of equality under the law

p. Right to equal protection under the law

q. Right to have causes heard in Court

r. Right to appeal decisions of Court

s. Right to asylum

t. Right to freedom from mass expulsion

u. Right to participate in government

v. Right to equal access to public property and public service

2. *Economic, Social & Cultural Rights*

a. Right to physical and mental health.

b. Right to adequate housing

c. Right to the highest attainable standard of health

d. Right to education

e. Right to take part in community cultural life

f. Right to work

g. Right to social security

h. Right to individual social & economic development

i. Right to an adequate standard of living

j. Right to adequate food

k. Right to water and sanitation

l. Right to family life

m. Right to benefit from scientific advancement

3. *Collective Rights*

a. Right to security

b. Right to self-determination

c. Right of Indigenous Peoples

d. Right to a clean and satisfactory environment (Clean Air)

e. Right to clean water

f. Right to peace

g. Right to economic, social, and cultural development

*Duty of Government*
Respect, Protect and Fulfil all human Rights

*Duty of Citizens*
Know, Understand, Respect, Demand and Enjoy all human rights

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